Demographics of KEEA Municipality (Source: KEEA Municipal Aseembly website)
Basic Population Characteristics
The population of
Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (KEEA) District Assembly was 52,216 in 1960
and 64.383 in 1970 producing an inter-censual increase of 23.3%. The
growth rate during that period was 2.09%. By 1984 the population of the
district was 76,462, which was 6.67% of the region’s population. The
inter-censual increase between 1970 and 1984 was 18.8%. The national
growth rate during that period was between 2.9 and 3.1% per annum.
During the 2000 Population and Housing
Census, the district population was estimated to be 112,435 (53,755
males and 58,682 females). The ratio of males to females is 91.6: 100.
There was an inter-censual increase of 46.5% between 1984 and 2000 and a
growth rate of 2.3%. The district’s share of the total population of
the Central Regional is 7.1%
The KEEA District has 158 settlements by
2000. Out of these, there are four major towns with respective
population figures of over four thousand (4,000) people. These are
Elmina (21,103, Komenda (12,278) and Agona Abrem (4990) and Kissi
(4,874). There are five (5) other settlements with respective
population figures of over 2000, which can be described as sub-urban
towns. These are Bisease (2,267) Abrobeano (2,201) Domenase (2,198) and
Abrem Berase (2,152). These five urban or semi-urban settlements
constitute over 43% of the district’s population.
Considering the situation further, the
2000 Population and Housing Census Special Report on 20 Largest
Localities indicates that just twenty (20) of the towns in the district
with a total population of 57,136, constitute over fifty per cent (50%)
of the total population of the district. Four of the towns (Elmina,
Komenda, Abrem Agona and Kissi) with a total population of 43,245
constitute over 38.5%.
The report gives the proportion of urban
population for the district as 29.7% (33,381) and rural population as
70.3% (79,056). This means that, the population of Elmina and Komenda,
the only towns in the district considered as urban towns, collectively
constitute about one-third of the district’s population.
The situation is further worsened by the
fact that more than 50% of the 158 settlements have population less than
500 persons. It therefore means that, a large portion of the population
live in the four urban and semi-urban towns. On the other hand, the
rest of the settlements (i.e. about 97%) occupied the vast stretch of
the district each with population less than 2,000.
There is spatial settlement pattern such
that there is preponderance of sparse populations scattered over a wide
area of the district. Such small populations of settlements cannot meet
the population threshold for the provision of social services to the
communities. Alternatively, social services could only be provided
based on centrality of a number of communities to be considered.
However, latter method cannot be applied without its concomitant high
The age sex structure of the district is
almost like that of the region and the nation at large. It is
characteristic of a youthful population with a substantial segment of
its population under the age of 15 years. By the 1984 Census, about 45%
of the population was under 15 years, 4% above the 1993 Ghana
Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). This indicated slight changes such
as 48.25 in the 0-14 group, 3.6% for the 66 years and over group and
48.2% in the 15-64 year group.
The latter figures of 1993 are indicative
of gradual acceptance of family planning methods and practices. The
male/female ratio of the district is 1:1.06. This means that for every
100 males we have 106 females. On the other hand, the male/female ratio
for the region is1: 1.04, which is slightly lower than that of the
The dependency ratio of the region by 1984
was 1:0.98, which shows that every active person has less than 1
dependent or 100 people, could take care of 98 persons. The district’s
is much higher (1:1). On economic dependency, the economic dependency
ratio is 100 is to 150% or 1:1.5. This means that for every
economically active person, we have 1.5 persons to take care of. Such a
high dependency ratio has various effects on the district’s economy.
Fertility rates are determining factors of
population increases. The Total Fertility Rate (TER) for Ghana (as
indicated from the 1993 GDHS) ranges between 6.4 and 5.5. Such a total
fertility rate is a very high figure as compared to some developed
countries whose Total Fertility rates are under 2.
In terms of teenage pregnancy and
adolescent fertility figures, the Central Region leads the rest of the
regions in Ghana. From the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey,
the Central Region leads with about 33.3% of teenage girls who have
started child bearing as against the national average of 22% and the
lowest regional figure of 11.1% from Volta region. Of this number,
28.4% of them are already mothers, and about 5% of them being pregnant
for the first time as compared to national average figures of 18.6 and
3% respectively in terms of the district figures, which were readily
K.E.E.A. District is predominantly rural
with worse situation than the regional average. Since major urban
settlements of the district are fishing towns and villages along the
populations, K.E.E.A District cannot be an exception to the high teenage
pregnancy situation in the region.
The district has Elmina as its district
capital, which was the first point of contact with the early Europeans
to this country. This town has therefore witnessed western civilization
and other economic activities over the centuries.
In 1948, Elmina with a population of 5,909
was the only urban town in the district. Komenda was only a semi-urban
settlement with population of 394 in 1948 and 4,262 in 1960. By 1960
Elmina’s population rose to 34 (an inter-census increase of 44.4%). It
was only in 1970 that Komenda’s population of 5,966 made it attain the
status of a town.
This was the period of the Sugar Factory’s
activities at Komenda. However by 1984, the population of Komenda had
reduced to 5,287, which was mainly due to the collapse of the sugar
factory resulting in the emigration of many workers to other places.
Human Settlement Patterns
The KEEA district has seen remarkable
improvement in development since it was carved out of the Cape Coast
Municipal assembly in 1988. Development in this district has however
been inadequate. Elmina, the district capital, stands out as the only
settlement with any meaningful level of services. Other settlements
with some modicum of a reasonable service delivery are Komenda and
The population of a settlement does have
some influence on the nature of the services in that settlement. Higher
order services are often associated with settlements with large
population and low order services with smaller settlements.
A classification of settlements was made
based on the nature of the services in the settlements (see scalogram).
In all, 30 services were identified to aid in the classification. The
measure used to arrive at the classification is the centrality index,
which was obtained from a weighting of the services.
A distinction was made between basic
services (which serve external markets like exports and therefore bring
money into the towns) and non-basic or residential services which serve
only local markets. Based on the weighting, the maximum score for any
settlement for all the services would be 55. This enables a grading of
settlements as follows:
Elmina was the only settlement with
services sufficient to be considered in Grade I. Komenda and Agona
Abrem were Grade II centres. Eguafo was classified as Grade V
settlements. Out of the 50 settlements ranked, 72% were Grade V
settlements. A further 10% were Grade IV settlements. This situation
is indicative of the rural nature of the district.
In terms of service distribution, there
was a preponderance of educational institutions. However, even here,
basic schools dominate. Educational projects constituted 39% of all
services. Of the educational services, 66% were basic schools.
About 68% of the settlements have safe
drinking water and 88% could be said to have adequate human excreta
disposal systems. It should be borne in mind that the analysis is only
for the 50 settlements of reasonable population size. The many
settlements with population less than 200 people are poorly served with
services and, in several cases there are no services at all.
Housing and Population Density
According to the 2000Population and
Housing Census, Elmina Town has 2,220 houses, within which 22,098 people
live. The total number of households stood at 5,806 (22,451 persons, or
on average 3,8 persons per household). The average of 3.8 persons per
household for the town as such is not very high. This is because the
census was held during the fishing seasons when you have a lot of single
households (migrant fishermen).
A household is made up of people belonging
to the same family who live in the same house and keep the house
together. This may be a core family of father, mother and children, but
also an incomplete family, or an extended family.
The core of Elmina Town, which is also the
most densely populated area, includes suburbs such as Bakaano, Essermu,
Neizer’s Garden, Lime Street area, Liverpool Street area, the St. Jago
Hill area and the Java Hill area. Housing density stands at about 600
houses per square kilometre.
The nature of congestion of physical
structures in these areas makes extension and expansion of facilities
extremely difficult. The occupation density of the houses in this areas
is also the highest, with on average of between 6.1 and 13.3 persons per
house, divided over 1.5 to 3.9 households per house. It must be added
that a fair percentage of the houses in the core area are among the
largest in town.
The population density decreases as we go
eastward and also towards the northern section of the town. The
moderately housing density populated suburbs include Sybil, Teterkesem
and Estates. The housing density in this area is quite manageable.
It stands at 10 houses per acre. Areas in
the north-eastern section of the town, which include the KEEA District
Administration area, the African Pot area, and the Elmina Golden Beach
Hotel area, are seen as the current direction of growth of the town. The
housing structures in these areas could be said to be ’free from pity’.
Housing density in these areas is also very low.
These areas are the peripheries of the
town, and there are orderly developments of housing structures. In all
these areas household size remains roughly equal to that elsewhere in
the town itself (circa 3.7 persons per household), but the occupancy per
house is on the average less high than what exits in the heart of the
town, as is the number of households per house (between 1.1 and 3.1).
The housing types in Elmina range from
single-room-storey house to five-storey apartment buildings. Most of the
housing units in Elmina Town are of single storey types.These single
storey types are made up of compound houses, detached and semi-detached
housing units. Many houses are not yet finished or in ruins.
The storey buildings form about 15% of the
total housing stock. Most of these storey buildings are of two storey
types. The tallest building found at the core of Elmina Town is only up
to three storeys, and this stands about 30 feet high. There are few
five-storey blocks of apartments (the so-called SSNIT Flats) built by
the Social Security and National insurance Trust (SSNIT). These blocks
are located at the periphery of the town and they stand about 50 feet
high. They are the tallest buildings in the town.
Although there are no definite statistics on ownership of the current
housing stock in Elmina, it is known that about 92% of the total housing
stock is privately owned (which is usually family ownership) whilst the
government owns only 8% of the stock, basically made up of detached
single storey housing units at Elmina Estates.
The architectural pattern of the housing
units is gradually changing from the dominant compound housing
structures to detached housing units. This can be attributed to the
gradual adoption of the western style of family systems where the
concentration is only on the nuclear family.
Due to increasing population figures there
is an urgent need for houses. In the old town it is almost impossible
to construct new houses due the lack of space. However the density is
still increasing putting more pressure on the existing infrastructure
like water, sewage, electricity, roads and drainage.
Poor drains, heaps of surface dumps and
unkempt surroundings, characterise the housing environment in the Elmina
Town especially in the core area. Only about 45% of the houses in the
town have internal toilet facilities. About 40% of the population
depends on public toilets, whilst others use the beaches and the Benya
Lagoon as their places of convenience.
Housing problems in Elmina Town cannot
only be said to be qualitative but also quantitative. The room occupancy
rate now stands at 4 to 5 people per room according to a sample survey
conducted. This high room occupancy rate is more pronounced at the areas
where the fisherfolks usually reside. These areas include Ayisa,
K’Burano and parts of Bakaano.
The average size of a room in these areas
is about 10 feet by 10 feet and this is usually occupied by an average
of 15 workers. These houses are usually wooden structures and have no
other facilities. According to the fishermen, they use the room only to
keep their belongings. This high room occupancy rate is usually typical
of transient fishing crews who for most of the time form the majority of
About 10% of the core area of Elmina Town
are situated on the Benya Lagoon’s flood plain. The suburbs lying in
this area include parts of Bakaano, Essermu and Neizer’s garden, and
also parts of Bantuma and Mbofra Akyinmu, and a section of Ayisa.
These areas are susceptible to acute
inundation, which affects most of the houses at rainy seasons. It is a
common sight, viewing houses with outer doors blocked with one to two
feet wall just to prevent floodwaters from entering the houses.
According to the residents, heavy floodwaters sometimes overflow these
walls and enter the rooms.
Also, some of the houses located at the
slopes of the hills (e.g. Java Hill, St. Jago Hill and St. Joseph’s
Hill) have exposed foundations and cracked walls as a result of
pronounced rainwater erosion that occurs on the slopes of these hills.
Generally most of the houses on these slopes have been affected by
Housing Congestion and Health
The quality and quantity of housing is a
significant factor affecting health. Greater proportion of the
population in Elmina Town live in sub-standard houses. Housing quality
extends beyond the availability of water or sanitation facilities.
Health risks associated with sub-standard
housing can be attributed to overcrowding, dampness, inadequate
drainage, and insufficient ventilation. All these are typical
characteristics of the housing environment in the Elmina Town. Women and
children, many of whom spend considerable time in the house, are
especially subject to these hazards. Overcrowding is particularly common
in Bakaano, Essermu, Ayisa, and K’Burano.
Overcrowding can aid the transmission of a
variety of infectious diseases, particularly airborne respiratory
diseases such as colds, pneumonia and tuberculosis. It is not uncommon
to see most of the residents, especially the fisher folks, sleeping
outside the room at nights in the open air.
They may do this to avoid such diseases,
but it is also a sign of overcrowding inside the houses. It also exposes
them to an increased risk for malaria. Overcrowding conditions, where
privacy is an unaccustomed luxury, can also be detrimental to mental
health, adding stress and contributing to depression and other
Also contributing to the psychological
burden of inadequate housing for residents in Elmina Town is insecure
tenure. Fear of eviction is a common worry among most low- income
tenants and causes considerable stress.
Storm Water Drainage and Sewerage
Limited Sewerage System
Elmina is sited on the flood plains of the
Benya Lagoon. Furthermore, with the characteristics of heavy rainfall
during the rainy season in the area and the clay-type nature of the soil
derived from the ridges and lagoon bed, response to rains is fast and
the runoff water from the slopes is heavy. Coupled with the Lacking a
good drainage network system, the runoff water tends to stay on the
developed areas for a long time.
Due to the geographical shape of Elmina,
expansion of the old town has been constrained. Marshlands, hills and
salt ponds have been natural hindrances for expansion. Naturally, with
the residents being principally fishing folks, the preferred expansion
would have been along the coast.
Instead, new developments are forced
northward along the Benya Lagoon. Improved salt winning methods have
resulted in the Ariwen River stream channel discharging into the lagoon
away from the salt ponds aggravating expansion of the lagoon. At various
built-up areas, excess water is generated by the high tidal effect in
the Benya lagoon.
Elmina is sub-divided into new and old
suburbs. The old suburbs include Bakaano, Bantuma, Essermu, Mbofra
Akyinmu, Lime Street, Esuekyir, and Teterkesem. The new suburbs are
Akotobinsin, Broyibima, Pershie and Gwira Akyinmu. Storm water drainage
systems are found in both the old and new suburbs. From Bakaano and
Teterkesem (the lower lying areas of the town) to Pershie and Gwira
Akyinmu, all areas have been connected into one storm water drainage
system to combat the flooding and drainage problems in the area.
Most of these drains have a very low
capacity, however. The Benya lagoon is the mainstream drain. The main
receiving water bodies in Elmina are the lagoon and the sea. Few
drainage channels in the town, however, are actually able to discharge
into the Benya Lagoon. This is because the outlets into the Benya Lagoon
are all below the high water level in the lagoon.
The base level of the lagoon is silted and
if this coincides with high tide at sea it blocks the channel from
discharging. One problem here seems to be the fact that the natural sand
bar in the bay in front of the Benya, which used to separate the sea
from the lagoon has been permanently removed with the construction of
the breakwater and pier and the reconstruction of the harbour and
landing ground in the colonial era, (most likely the 1920s).
The breakwater has changed the shape of
the bay, and thereby the in and outflow of water. Besides, the
breakwater is currently in a derelict state, and will, without
maintenance and reconstruction, collapse further in coming years. It is
expected that this will enhance the silting and flooding problems in and
around the lagoon.
Several storm water drains have been
provided over the last few years to reduce the flooding problem.
However, drainage remains a major problem in most of the suburbs of
Elmina. The Government of Ghana has recently tackled some of the
problems in the old and the new suburbs, with assistance from the World
Bank under the Urban II and III Rehabilitation Development Projects.
Although some of the problems were solved, areas in Teterkesem and other
low-lying suburbs are still subjected to flooding.
There is no centralized sewerage system in
the Elmina Town / KEEA District. About 68% of the population live in
areas with only pit latrines or a septic tank with soak-away pit known
as "Aqua Privy’ or ’Vault Chamber Toilet’. About 15% of the population
have KVIP toilets, while 7% have access to household domestic water
closet toilet facilities. About 10% use the bush and beaches. At present
it is estimated that about 10% of the total liquid waste, are being
discharged into the marine environment without treatment whatsoever.
The only trench system for final disposal
of liquid and solid waste is located at Ataabadze, about 7 kilometres
from Elmina Town Domestic waste water is normally discharged into the
drains, where it combines with the storm water, and finally disposed
into the Benya Lagoon or the sea.
The volume of traffic in Elmina has
increased over the years due to the increased number of visitors to the
town. Although the use of motor vehicles is on the increase, air
pollution is not yet a major problem in Elmina. However indiscriminate
hooting of horns by drivers is becoming a nuisance to the people of
Land Resources in Elmina
The land in Elmina is of diverse nature in
which hills and hilly areas are interspersed with low-lying lagoons and
flat beach areas. The Benya Lagoon, which stretches from the Atlantic
Ocean, influences the quality of a large part of the lagoon land,
stretching from the centre of the town to areas around and beyond
Bronyibima, a suburb of the town. Along the stretch of the Benya Lagoon
is a natural forest.
Mangrove swamps protect the lagoon from
drying up during the harmattan or dry season. Again the mangrove swamps
prevent dangerous erosions along the lagoons when the current of the sea
is great, pushing much water from the ocean. Some parts of the town,
more especially Teterkesem and Esuekyir are low-lying flat areas liable
to flooding from the lagoon. Iture, a suburb at the south-eastern border
of Elmina with Cape Coast, has two big rivers emptying themselves into
the sea. Low-lying wetlands and mangrove swamps, with adjacent areas
prone to flooding surround both the Kakum and the Sweet River.
In town there is hardly any land available
for future development. Open spaces are encroached upon or polluted.
Ownership of the land is private but often difficult to trace.
Buildings that collapse are therefore often not completely demolished
and the areas lie idle and undeveloped (also because of lack of
financial resources to re-develop the land). Outside the historic town
there is however still land available for development
Increasing Pressure on Land Resources
Since Elmina is expanding in size and
population, there has been increasing pressure on land. Lands around
the lagoons, especially the Benya Lagoon, is used for salt winning.
Small-scale agriculture in the area is based on the Shifting Cultivation
system, which has the effect of deforestation, and subjects the land to
erosion. Agriculture is moving from the town area into the surrounding
hinterland more and more. This has to do with the requirements of
housing. The expansion of residential building in Elmina is putting more
and more pressure on the available land. In recent times, the
development of hotel accommodation has added to this pressure.
The Impact on Land Resource of Each Activity Sector
Land in Elmina usually belongs to
families and clans, who claim ownership by first occupation or purchase.
Family ownership of land creates an artificial shortage of land for
(residential) building. This is counteracted by the fact that
individuals can hold land on lease. Heads of families and clans are
developing land for residential purposes in and around Elmina Town.
Ownership of the land is not always clear and thus hindering further
future development. It is also almost impossible to construct new houses
for the increasing population due to the actual lack of space. The
extension and expansion of existing structures put more pressure on the
The encroachment of the main streets in
Elmina with kiosks, extension of (historical) buildings, small-scale
workshops are congesting the town even more. Most of these constructions
are illegal. It is not only hindering future development of the old
town but also endangering traffic (especially in High and Liverpool
The greater part of the land for
agriculture in Elmina town is now being used for other activities,
thereby pushing agriculture into the hinterland. Even backyard
gardening, poultry, and other livestock keeping, which was common in
town, are disappearing because of a scarcity of land.
Tourism and recreation
As already indicated, the beaches around
the coast of Elmina are beautiful and attractive. There has therefore
been an increasing demand for lands around such areas for the booming
hotel industry to boost tourism and recreation. Starting from Iture, the
south-eastern gate of Elmina from Cape Coast, there are hotels and
beach resorts along the coast to Brenu Akyinmu and beyond.
These hotel activities have left few
public recreational lands. The land has also being encroached upon by
individuals and organisations, for either commercial or economic
activities. The consequence, at times, is land litigation in courts. The
growing population and increasing tourism industry naturally calls for
more space. Meanwhile, the open spaces and walkways are under pressure
of unauthorised structures (kiosks and houses) and lands cannot be
acquired for the tourism sector.
Land for Services
Essential services on the national and
local level, like solid waste management, water pumping stations, police
stations, cemeteries and the like, are acquired by government through a
compensation system for the rightful owners. The legal acquisition of
lands by government is relatively easy, but only if land is physically
available, which is a problem in Elmina Town.
Sand and Clay Winning
The illegal sand and clay winning is
contributing to the depletion of land and resulting in erosion. The
erosion is not only damaging the constructions along the beach and on
the hills but is also resulting in increased siltation of the drainage
canals and the lagoon, which causes an increased risk for flooding.
The ecology of land, forest, lagoons and
rivers is gradually depleted as a result cf the competing interests in
the day-to-day activities on such areas. Mangrove swamps as well as
trees in the forest are being cleared for commercial and economic
activities. Lagoon and forest erosion is the result.
The humus in rich agricultural lands is
carried away and deposited somewhere else. Rivers dry up because
agricultural activities along the river banks have opened up the rivers
under the scorching sun. Beaches are used by hotels, and therefore
become unavailable to the local population as landing spaces for canoes,
beach fishing spots and for recreation.
A growing population and a growing tourism
industry demand for more space, which is hardly available in the
historic part of the town. A clear overview of available land (including
open spaces) and its ownership could earmark certain areas for future
development. Other threats in addition to the above mentioned activities
are sand winning and the construction of kiosks. These are all
hindering future development. Only if the government would be able and
willing to take measures against these activities will meaningful
development in these areas become a reality.
The Lands Commission, the Survey
Department, the Town and Country Planning Department, the Land Valuation
Board and the KEEA District Assembly are the organisations responsible
for land management in Elmina. Individuals lease the land (99 years
lease and 49 years for foreigners) but need to consult the above
institutions for acquisition, registration and building permits.
There are two systems of land registration
applicable in the country: the Land Title Registration currently
operating in the Greater Accra and the Ashanti Regions and the Deeds
Registration applicable to the rest of the country, including the
Central Region. Land acquisition procedure within the district depends
on the type of land involved. There are four (4) main types of land,
namely, public or state, stool, family and private lands. Where the land
is state land, the acquisition process starts with the Lands
Commission, the managers of public lands.
Customary lands (stool and family lands)
are under the control of the occupant of the stool or the head of family
(usually known as Ebusuapanyin) and they together with principal elders
of the stool or family have the capacity to deal with the land. By
provision of the Constitution of Ghana, stool lands cannot be granted on
freehold basis, they are usually granted on 99 years leasehold terms.
Family and private lands, which predominates in the KEEA District, can
however be acquired on freehold basis.The Survey Department has
responsibility to map out any area of land for whatever purpose, whether
private or governmental, and provides site plans in any scale,
providing vital information or data needed. Maps and digital information
are prepared and managed by this department.
It is however difficult to find updated maps of the town, which is
mostly caused by the fact that the information is kept in Accra is
expensive and not easily disseminated. The ECHMP has however purchased a
digital information from the Survey Department and has prepared series
of maps (included in this profile). In the course of the project a more
comprehensive GIS system will be prepared for the KEEA and officers will
be trained on how to use the system.
The Lands Commission is in charge of registering both government
acquired and private lands to prevent encroachments and double sales by
land owners, while the Land Valuation Board is in charge of assessing or
giving values to lands, houses, both public and private properties for
due compensations to be paid. The KEEA District Assembly is
co-ordinating the activities of the organisations above.
The KEEA District Statutory Planning Committee, comprising of all the
institutions mentioned above and some few technical institutions,
approves building permits and projects for both private and public
organisations based on the Local Government Act 462. However many of the
newly constructed buildings in Elmina are built without the proper
legislation and are therefore unauthorised.
Other institutions and ministries like the Ministry of Health, the Ghana
Fire Service, City Engineers Department, Electricity Company of Ghana,
Ghana Water Company Ltd, Hydrological Department of Ministry of Works
and Housing and Environmental Protection Agency also play various roles
in the approval and delivery of development permits and use of land.
When there is the need for a qualified government surveyor to map out an
area or a piece of land, individuals often use unqualified surveyors
and planners to work for them at low fees.
Consequently, planned schemes are set out haphazardly. Open spaces,
market places, and proposed streets and lanes are being encroached upon,
water courses and catchment areas, pipe tracks and underground cable
lines are ignored. Buildings and kiosks are put up in lanes without
recourse to building regulations as enshrined in the Local Government
The District Assembly does not seem to have the power and capacity to
deal with this issue. Land use planning, land management and development
control within the Elmina area are hampered by a host of problems,
which include land ownership conflicts, litigation, encroachment,
multiple sale of land, unapproved and haphazard development leading to
Lack of effective co-ordination and
co-operation among the various agencies is also a contributing factor to
the problem. The causes of these problems, can be attributed to
inadequate, conflicting, outdated and unreliable legislation, poor
documentation of land transactions and management of information on
land, indeterminate boundaries of customary lands, inadequate security
of land tenure, unavailability of good data on land and land rights and
general indiscipline in the land market.